Simple Lexicon

Aerial Roots: Roots produced along the stem, above the ground, that do not enter the medium. Free hanging, exposed to the air roots.
Albino: (Alba) Flowers: Color pigment free flowers. White form of a flower. Plants: Plants that lack in chlorophyll.
Alliance: A group of closely related genera. Also called "Tribe". Group of species or genera that share certain futures.
Alternate: Said of Plant parts being placed individually at different heights on a stem of flower spike.
Angiosperm: All plants where the seed is enclosed in a seed capsule or fruit.
Annual: Plants with a life cycle of one year. Seed - Flower - Seed in one year.
Anther: The pollen-bearing portion of the stamen. The "male" part of the flower that contains the pollen.
Anthesis: The period of time required for the flower to open fully.
Ascending: Growing upwards.
Asexual: Sexless. Without any sex characteristics.
Asymmetrical: Flower without Symetry. Irregular flower.
Axillary: Said of flower that arise from the axil of a leaf.
Back-bulb: Old Pseudo-bulbs that follow the leading pseudo-bulb. Often leafless. Can be used for propagating a new plant.
Bacterial Disease: A disease caused by Bacteria, such as: Rot (Erwinia sp., Burkholderia sp.,) Spot (Acidovorax sp., Pseudonomas sp.,)
Basal: Inflorescence that arises from the base of the Pseudo-bulb.
Bi-Foliate: Having two leaves on a single pseudo-bulb.
Bi-Sexual: Flower that has both a stamen and pistil. (Male and Female parts).
Blight: A disease characterized by general and rapid killing of leaves, flowers and stems.
Blotch: A disease characterized by varied sizes and shapes spots on leaves, shoots and stems.
Bract: Modified, leaf-like structure that subtends (positioned beneath) a flower, leaf, or inflorescence (stem).
Bracteole: Small bract that arises on a pedicel instead of subtending it.
Bud: Common term for an unopened flower before it begins enlarging, or new shoot before it elongates. Also often applied to a tiny new grwth or leaf.
Bulb: A storage organ. Enlarged or swollen stem.
Calyx: The outmost segments of the flower; the Sepals.
Capsule: The fruit of orchids. The seedpod of an orchid, often containing thousands, even millions of seeds.
Cation & Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC): Cation is an "ion", that has a positive charge. Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) is a measure of the ability of the growing medium to absorb exchangeable cations that are available to the plant and will resist the leaching nutrients during watering.
Central growing point: On a monopodial orchid, this is where the upright vegetative growth will begin.
Chlorophyll: Vital bio molecule that allows plants to absorb energy from light; The process of converting light energy into chemical energy (glucose) is called photosynthesis. Chlorophyll is he source of the "Green" pigmentation of all living plants and algae.
Chlorotic: Yellowish plant. (The disease: Chlorosis)
Cleistogamous: Term used to describe a flower that self Clone. All the various vegetative manifestations (Divisions, meristern prppagations, and so forth) of a single orchid plant grown originally from a single seed; designated by single quotes around its name.
Clone: Asexually propagated plants, originating from one plant.
Column: The waxy structure in the center of the flower. The central part of the orchid flower made of fused male and female parts.
Community Pot: Many tiny seedlings planted together in a single container, before they are individually repotted.
Compote Common: Term meaning "Community Pot".
Convolute: Rolled up.
Corm: The swollen, subterranean bulb-like stem or stem base. (Storage organ).
Cross: The act of transferring pollen from the flower of one plant to the flower of another. Method of seed propagation of an orchid wherein the pollen of one orchid is placed on the stigma pf another, that was originally grown in the same way.
Crown: The central part of the rosette of leaves in monopodial orchids such as Phalaenopsis, from which new growth arises upwards.
Clone: Asexually propagated plants, originating from one plant.
Column: The waxy structure in the center of the flower.
Cultivar: A specific plant, grown from a single seed; designated by single quotes around its name.
Deciduous: A plant that sheds its leaves annually, and remains leafless for a period of time, with regrowth after a dormant rest.
Dentate: Refers to tooth-like margins observed on leaves and petals.
Denterminate: Said of an inflorescence when the terminal flower opens first, thus preventing any further elongation of the flower spike.
Dieback: A disease causing the death of shoots and branches starting at the top.
Diploid: Having a normal number of two sets of chromosomes; Known a 2N.
Division: Making two new plants from an old one by division. By cutting the rhizome of a sympodial orchid into pieces containing psedo bulbs and rhizome, or by cutting off the top half of a stem of a vinelike orchid.
Dormancy: A rest period without vegetative growth. During dormancy, orchids may require cooler temperatures and less watering.
Dorsal: The side facing farthest away from the axis of a flower.
Dorsal Sepal: In orchids, the uppermost "petal" of a flower.
Endemic: Plants found only in one area or region or country and nowhere else.
Epiphyte: A plant that grows independently above the ground, on another plant, without drawing nourishment from the host plant. It attaches to something for support. Nutriens are taken from rain, air, available debris, etc
Erect: Growing upright.
Equitant: Having all leaves arranged flat in one plane; specifically refers tp a type of Oncidium.
Evergreen: The opposite to "Deciduous". Plants that never loose their leaves.
Eye: The vegetative bud at the base of a pseudo-bulb, or growth of Vandaceous orchids.
Falcate: Sickle shaped.
Family: A natural unit in taxonomy.
Fasciation: A malformation caused by several stems being fused into one.
Floriferous: Term used to describe a plant that flowers freely.
Flower Spike: Common term for any of the various types of the more properly termed flower inflorescence, whether bearing a solitary bloom atop a single stalk, or in racemes or panicles of many flowers.
Foliage: Leaves.
Fruit: Any structure that bears or contains seed. The Seed capsule in orchids.
Fungal Disease: A diseases caused by Fungi, such as: Roots Rot, Fungal Black Rot, Fungal Black Spot, Fungal Crown Rot, etc
Genus: A taxonomic sub-division of a family. A Genus is composed from one or more species with certain common characteristics.
Germination A process where seeds start growing by producing roots and leaves.
Grex: Term to describe horticultural hybrids of orchids, based solely on their specified parentage.
Habitat The natural environment in which a life form - in this case a plant - grows.
Head: Said when flowers appear in a tight cluster at the top of the flower spike.
Hybrid: The resulting progeny from the union of two different species (Primary), a species and a hybrid, two hybrids (Complex) or of two different Genuses (Inter generic).
Hybridization: The act of producing hybrids.
Inert: Free of any chemical or biological value or action.
Inflorescence: The flower-bearing stem.
Intergeneric: A hybrid between two or more genera.
Indeterminate: Said when the lower flowers open first and the apex of the flower spike remains vegetative.
Keiki: A plantlet that develops from an orchids inflorescence or cane.
Labellum: The third, highly modified petal of an orchid flower. Also called "The lip".
Lateral Sepal: Term used to refer to the two lowermost sepals that extend to the sides, versus the topmost dorsal sepal.
Lip: The third petal, in orchids usually enlarged and ornate: The labellum.
Lithophyte: Plants that grow attached to a in rock.
Medium: The material or mix of materials in which plants (orchids) grown. (Potting mix)
Mericlone Vegetative culture of plants through the tissue culture of apical meristems. Plants produced through this process suppose to be but are not always identical. Meristemic cells, like human stem cells, are undifferentiated and occur in areas of new growth. Orchids cultured this way, produces proto corms which may develop into new plants.
Meristem: The actively dividing cell tissue, harvested fro root tips and from tips of new growths of floral shoots.
Micro Propagation: Rolled up.
Monopodial: Having one foot: Plants that grow perpendicular to the horizon with strong apical dominance. Today, only Vandaceous orchids are considerd as Monopodial.
Multifloral: Having more than one flower per inflorescence.
Mycorrhiza: It refers to the symbiotic relationship between certain fungi and the roots of certain plants.
Node: A distinct joint or notch on an inflorescence, stem, of pseudobulbar from which a flower stem, leaves or roots can emerge;term used to refer to the place on a Phalaenopsis inflorescence above which a cut can be made to induce a secondary bloo,
Nonresupinate: Those plants whose flower lips are positioned uppermost relative to the inflorescence axis. The majority of orchid flowers are resupinate.
Orchidology: The study of orchids.
Ovary: The part of the flower that encloses the ovules and after fertilasation develops into the fruit.
Ovule: A small protuberance in the ovay, capable of forming a seed when fertilised.
Panicle: A branched influorescence.
pH: The negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration to the base 10. On the pH scale, from 1.0 – 6.8 is acidic and from 7.2 -14.0 is alkaline. The pH range of 6.8 - 7.2 is considered to be neutral. Soil pH is important because it affects not only the availability of nutrients to plants, but also the activity of soil microorganisms. High rainfall areas are associated with acid soils and areas with low rainfalls have alkaline soils. A soil pH above 7.5 indicates the presence of free lime (high calcium carbonate content).
Pathogen An organism or agent that can cause an infectious disease.
Pedicel: The stalk that attaches a single flower to the inflorescence.
Peloric: Used to describe an unusual condition where all three petals attempt to fashion themselves into lip colors and/or shapes. Applies to Phalaenopsis flowers.
Perennials: Plants with a life span of over two years.
Pests: Harmful visible organisms that are detrimental to plants.
Petal: One of the segments that make up the inner whorl of the flower.
Petals in Orchids: One of the 3 inner segments of the flower that are positioned between the 3 sepals; one of the petals is modified into a lip.
Petiole: The stalk of a leaf.
Photosynthesis: The process by which sunlight converts water *****************************
Pistil The female organ of the flower which produces the seed. (Collective term for the stigma, style and ovary).
Pod: A dry dehiscent fruit. Used to refer to the seedpot or capsule.
Pollen: Tiny particles of genetic material. When Pollen touches the ovules in the ovary, cross pollination takes place and seed is formed.
Pollination: The act of placing the pollinia onto the stigmatic surface of a flower.
Pollinia: The waxy pollen clumps found in flowers. Found in the Anthers of most orchids.
Polymorphic: Something with more than one face or form.
Prophyll: Leaf-like structure, subtending a single flower of pedicel.
Pseudo-bulb: The above ground thickened portion of the lateral branch of a Symbopial orchid. One of the segments that make-up the whorl of the flower.
Raceme: Unbranched inflorescence with flowers each born on an individual short stalk. The youngest flower is always at the top (apex).
Resupinate: The stalk of a leaf.
Rhizome: Horizontal stem, predominantly on or just bellow the ground, that send out roots or shoots from its nodes. Rhizomes can, separated into pieces, give rise to new plants.
Rot: Metabolic breakdown of materials into simpler components by living micro-organisms, predominantly Fungi (Fungal Rot) or Bacteria (Bacterial Rot).
Scape: Leafless peduncle rising from the ground.
Seed: A mature ovule capable of producing a new plant.
Seedling: Any plant grown from seed, and did not bloom yet.
Seedpot: The seed bearing capsule of an orchid.
Sepal: One of the segments that make-up the whorl of the flower.
Serniterrestrial: Refers to orchids that grow near or on the ground, in very loose open substrate.
Sheath: Leaf-like stricture in orchid that encloses developing buds or emerging pseudo-bulbs.
Shoot: New growth of a plant.
Sibling: Orchids related to another by virtue of having benn produced from the same seedpot
Solitary: Single flower per inflorescence.
Spathe: A leaf like bract that encloses or subtends or en-compasses an inflorescence.

The lowest taxonomic rank. Distinct grouping of plants uniform in character within a genus.

Specimen: Orchid plant that has been allowed to grow to great soze. A single, large, well grown plant.
Spike: Un-branched inflorescence that has the youngest flowers at the end.
Splash: An orchid flower that modifies its petals by dublicating the colouring found on the lip; a type of peloric condition.
Spray: General term to describe all types of inflorescences.
Stalk: Stem.
Stamen: The male part of the flower, composed of a filament and pollen. The pollen producing reproductive organ of the flower.
Stem: The part of the plant visible above the ground. A main axis which bears leaves and may flower.
Stigma: The apex of the pistil. Usually covered with a viscid substance when receptive.
Succulent: Plants with soft and fleshy leaves, stems or other organs.
Sympodial: Orchids whose main stem grows horizontally, have determinate later branches and terminal flower-spikes or auxilarry. All non-vandaceous orchids are classified as "Symbodial".
Systemic: Name used to describe pesticides or fungicides that are taken up by plant leaves and growths and then work fro within the plant..
Taxonomy: The science of Plant classification.
Terete: Said of leaves that are circular in cross section.
Terminal: Said when flowers arise from the tip of the growth, as in Cattleya.
Terrestrials: Ground orchids. Orchids that grow on the ground, in soil or a similar medium.
Tetraploid: Genetic aberration wherein the plant has twice as many chromosome sets as normal, ofter resulting in very vigorous, large plants and flowers.
Throat: The inner portion of a tubular orchid lip.
Tissue Culture: Artificial propagation of plants via mericloning, also known as "Meristemic".
Tribe: A group of closely related Genera, also called "Alliance".
Tuber: A thickened stem, normally found underground.
Twig Epiphyte: Orchids that grow, or prefer to grow, on small outer branches or twigs of trees.
Umbel: An inflorescence where the flowers apear to arise at one point.
Unifoliate: Bearing one leaf per growth.
Vandaceous: Term used to describe any large monopodial orchid, particularly for Vanda and its closely related orchids.
Variety: A plant withn a Species that shows minor but distinct characteristics that is passed on along to the progeny. Subdivision of a Species.
Vector An organism that transmit pathogens.
Vegetative Propagation: The creation of additional plants by division, keikis, or any other meristemic technique, other than using seed
Velamen: The thick layer of corklike, water
Viscid: Very sticky.
Zygomorphic: Irregular, symmetrical flower that can be divided into two equal halves in one plane only.

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